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2

The small schwa is not used by all dictionaries. For example, you can check the word in the Oxford dictionary and find it written /ˈtempərət/. IPA has its own spelling rules and conventions. The Oxford & Cambridge dictionaries do not follow the same conventions; this reflects a lack of standardisation. Both transcriptions of 'temperate' have the same ...


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Because phoneticians like to make things overly complicated. The needs of English learners are different. The complexity and lack of standardisation puts people off of learning IPA.


4

That superscript schwa means that the R is syllabic for some speakers i.e. capable of making a syllable of its own. You will also hear it being pronounced with the schwa. For syllabic consonants, we use another diacritic (a small vertical line below the consonant) in phonetic transcriptions, but dictionaries use [ᵊ] before the syllabic consonants for ...


0

The location of your tongue very much depends on the physical aspect of your jaw and teeth alignment, which isn't the same for everybody. Some people pronounce the th sounds with their tongue slightly touching the back of their front teeth. For others, the tongue slightly pokes out. When I pronounce the th sounds, it feels as if my tongue is lightly resting ...


0

TLDR: all of them are flaps except for the last one which sounds like an unaspirated t. First and foremost, native speakers think of all the T's a single sound—/t/, that is, all those sounds are stored as a single sound ('phoneme') in their minds so they might not notice the phonetic difference between a flap and a normal t. A phoneme is a 'meaningful unit' ...


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