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5

Are is a copular verb, which means that especially irritable is a complement to the subject. The phrase in the late afternoon is an adverbial complement. Copular verbs don't take objects. They take a complement to the subject that tells us more about the subject, it qualifies the subject. Especially irritable is not a new person or object in the sentence, ...


5

"Ethelred is king" means that he is a specific king, presumably the king of our own country or of the country that we have just been talking about. "Ethelred is a king" means that he is one of many kings. As there is normally only one king per country, this would normally mean he is a king of some unspecified country, maybe our country or maybe some other ...


4

This is very tricky. What do we have in stop short of? Is it 1) as Jim suggests, a particle phrasal verb (stop short) plus an optional PP with of as its complement? 2) an ordinary stop with a PP headed by short of as a secondary subject-oriented complement? or 3) a particle-preposition phrasal verb like put up with? None of these standard tests yields ...


4

The definitive answer is given here: https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/8438/do-predicative-adjuncts-modify-nouns-or-verbs. Be sure to read all the comments as well, especially John Lawler's.


4

The term Subject describes a particular job in a sentence. The term noun phrase describes a phrase headed by a noun (in other words the phrase is built around a noun). The first word, Subject tells us how a phrase relates to different parts of the sentence. The second term noun phrase tells us about how that phrase is built. So a phrase can be both a Subject ...


3

Get on board means to enter a vehicle such as a ship (the original sense), a train or a bus. Here it is used figuratively to mean that these designers started working on the internet, thought of as a vehicle carrying many people into new territory. Yes, this sentence has two VPs with the same subject NP. The two VPs are fairly long, but the structure is ...


3

"He is King." He is our King or the king of this specific country in this time. "He is a king" He's a king. One of many kings of a region. There were many kings in early Britain. He was a king of Mercia. It can also mean there have been many kings in Mercia and he was one of them.


3

The meaning is B, but this is an awkward use of the phrase. A free man is an idiomatic expression with a certain meaning. To wit, it's for those being released from prison, a hostage situation, slavery or the like. Free is used in a literal, physical manner: released from captivity. Even if used metaphorically (e.g. you broke up with your abusive ...


3

I vote for [B]. The sentence means that Assange plans to leave when allegations and indictments against him have been dismissed.


3

What is probably confusing you is that smashed looks like a past-tense verb but it's not: it's a past participle. So the subject is the long scar smashed into the jungle, with smashed into the jungle a participle clause acting as an adjectival modifying the long scar. You might paraphrase this The long scar which was smashed into the jungle. The predicate ...


2

Would you say hers photos? No. You would say her photos... or if it's already clear what you are talking about, you would say hers without specifying photos. So you first have to establish that you are talking about photos by saying half your photos and then you can say hers. I remember [that] you sent me a photo with half your photos and half hers ...


2

In traditional grammar a sentence comprises of a subject and a predicate. The lake froze solid. [Subject => The lake Predicate => froze solid] I am no one special. [Subject => I Predicate => am no one special] The sky is blue. [Subject => The sky Predicate => is blue] In the sentences above "The lake", "I" and "the sky" are the subjects and "...


2

Now, I don't know any theory to go with this. I'm just judging this by experience. Your sentence A is absolutely fine as far as I can see, with no comma before and. On the other hand, I agree that the examples in your rule are right, and whether it's a 'must' or a 'should', it's a rule worth following - whether you consider it a grammatical requirement or a ...


1

Possessive-adjectives are not adjectives. Possessive pronouns are certainly not adjectives Possessive-adjectives can function in some ways like adjectives (my book, red book). But they are can't form comparatives or superlatives (*a more my book, *the myest book). And they can't form a predicate (*this book is my.) The possessive pronouns act like nouns. ...


1

"he is king" ==> there is only one king and he is it. "he is a king" ==> there may be one or more kings, but he is one of them.


1

Use of punctuation marks is determined by style sheets. With regard to punctuation, spell-checkers are a form of style sheet that you are free to ignore. Because I find it natural to insert a pause after "said" when reading the sentence as written aloud, I'd normally follow the cadence of spoken English by inserting a comma, just as you have done. (Of course,...


1

Objects are involved in an action. So an expression of Subject-Verb-Object is talking about 2 distinct entities (subject and object). You leave the sentence with information about 2 things. I hit the wall. (This action included me and the wall) Predicative complements serve to identify X or communicate an attribute of X. There is only 1 distinct ...


1

You're correct. There are neither a subject nor a verb in that sentence. They're both missing. But that's due to the fact that they are actually implied: So, (there are) quite a few different meanings there to contend with, but I hope this helps you to identify which word you might use. The omission of the syntactic expletive there and the verb are is ...


1

On the top of the hill lives a hermit. Here the subject of the sentence (clause) is a hermit. The example sentence can also be written as: A hermit lives on the top of the hill. Tipically, in a sentence (clause), everything that comes after the subject or everything that is not the subject is the predicate. Consequently, the predicate in your sentence ...


1

The simple predicate is the verb or the essential parts of the verb phrase —the parts which cannot be omitted without changing the meaning—in a sentence. In a sentence with a simple verb, the simple predicate is easy to identify: She looked up at the sky. In a sentence which contains an auxiliary or linking verb, the simple predicate also includes them: ...


1

The initial page actually has anchor links for each word, making it easy to see what the web page is trying to convey. With an intransitive verb, objects and complements are included in the predicate. (The glacier is melting.) The objects word links to the Direct and Indirect Objects and thus refers to either or both direct objects and indirect objects. ...


1

I searched in the COCA corpus and found 23 results for are adverse. Only some of these are examples of predicative use, but they do exist: Hydrological mechanisms that lead to lower pore-water pressures in the soil are beneficial, whereas those that increase pore pressure are adverse. Of the mechanical mechanisms, those that increase shear resistance in ...


1

The phrase "a stage usually referred to as runtime" has no subject and no predicate.  It could serve as the subject, object or complement of some clause, but, on its own, it is only a noun phrase. The keyword of this phrase is the noun "stage".  This keyword is modified by the indefinite article and by the participial phrase "usually referred to ...


1

As TRomano states, the given fragment that you are asking about is a dependent clause; this means (among other things) that the clause itself cannot stand alone as a sentence (and thus depends upon the sentence it is included within to be valid). With respect to being placed into a Subject-Predicate relationship, the dependent clause is an incomplete ...


1

Very good question. It can take both singular and plural form. OALD defines it - none - not one (is singular) of a group of people or things; not any (could be plural) - any can be used with plural [any suggestions?] As exactly mentioned in examples there... None of these pens works/work We have three sons but none of them lives/live nearby


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