Both sentences are grammatically correct but imply different meanings.
Who telephoned Emma?
you enquire about the person who made a call to Emma (Someone made a call to Emma, "Who" is a subject)
Who did telephone Emma?
you ask which person did Emma call (Emma made a call, Emma is a subject)
A does not make much sense, except perhaps in the following situation.
Mary: Shall we go the jazz concert?
John: OK. Where shall we go?
Mary: I just said! To the jazz concert! Are you deaf?
John: Oh sorry, I had my mind on other things.
Mary: I know what you were thinking about. Pah! Men and their football!
More likely is version D
Mary: I want to go ...
In British English we would say "cleaner". If it was absolutely necessary to specify the gender, we'd be more likely to say "male cleaner" than "cleaning man" (which sounds odd, even though the term "cleaning lady" is well established and still fairly often used).
(Tim's answer may be a very good answer for American ...
Stereotypically, we'd say "cleaning lady" in the US to refer to a female housekeeper, or to be humorously condescending to a male in that role (such as this clip from the movie Super Troopers, where the Chief makes Trooper Farva do cleaning work as a punishment). But we usually don't say "cleaning man", and a "cleaner" is often ...
Yes, either “cleaning man” if they are male,
“cleaner” or “janitor” works in your sentence.
A janitor (American English, Scottish English), custodian, porter, cleaner or caretaker is a person who cleans and maintains buildings such as hospitals, schools, and residential accommodation. Janitors' primary responsibility is as a cleaner.
The sentence "What you've been doing" is in form of a noun clause. For example, you can use it in the sentences that are like the following: "What you've been doing is interesting to me."
But if you want to use it as a question, you should say: "What have you been doing?"
The correct way to ask someone about their recent activities is "What have you been doing?".
However, if you were to ask somebody that, but they didn't hear you, and then they asked me what you said, I might use indirect speech and tell them, "He asked what you've been doing". This would not be me asking them a question, but me using ...
'to' or 'for' would be fine. Either doesn't read as odd to me.
How likely is it that the pandemic is over by summer?
What are the chances for the pandemic being over by the summer?
as options, but not "better". Chance vs chances ... I think both can be used provided verb agreement is handled.
I like your wording a little better than any of ...
Both are oddly phrased sentences to a native speaker (American). The meaning could easily be confused.
There's something strange about the tense to me. I would phrase it:
Why would my new year go exactly opposite to what I planned?
Will my new year go exactly opposite to what I planned?
 Why my new year has to go exactly opposite to what I have planned?
 Why does my new year have to go exactly opposite to what I have
In main clause interrogatives, if the interrogative word is not the subject its placement in this position triggers subject-auxiliary inversion, as in .
 is not ungrammatical, but it is not an ...
The second is the correct form.
The most frequent form of a question in English is to precede the subject with some form of the auxiliary verb “do” and follow the subject with the remainder of the verb
The girl studied algebra last year
Did the girl study algebra last year?
“Why” is most often used as an interrogative to initiate a ...
If someone asked me, "Were no errors displayed on screen?", I would usually say "No" if I meant "No, no errors were displayed" - and "Yes" if I meant "Yes, actually, errors were displayed". It is sometimes necessary to elaborate on the latter (or even the former) for clarity, although intonation and emphasis ...
If someone is asking this during a 'conversation', it can be answered according to your understanding. You can repeat the sentence too, for better clarification. Just carry forward their negation or affirmation.
Is there no way to make this right?
No. There is no way.
It simply emphasizes what the speaker is saying.
Even when using a single word answer, I ...
You should not normally use that question at all. It treats the person like a thing and so is rude.
If you want to ask about a job ask
What is your job?
What do you do (for work) (for a living)?
If you want to ask about nationality:
What is your nationality?
And so on.