68

"Drinking the Kool-Aid" refers to the mass suicide of the "People's Temple" cult at Jonestown, Guyana in 1979. Hundreds of members of the cult are incorrectly believed to have killed themselves by drinking fruit-flavored punch laced with cyanide. Actually, the drink believed to be used was the brand Flavor Aid, NOT the brand Kool-Aid, but "drinking the Kool-...


22

Sara T's explanation is often thought of as the origin, but the expression actually started getting used by "baby boomers" after Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test came out in 1968. The book chronicles the activities of Ken Kesey, one of the leaders of the hippie counterculture movement, and his followers, in particular their habit of getting ...


12

Constructions like that can be made, using the definite article to refer to a category of things - "the horse", "the television", and yes, "the totem pole". You would not then group such a thing "into specific categories". You might group it with other things - "the horse may be grouped with the zebra and the donkey to form the family of equids", but not ...


7

It's a reference to the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_Who_Say_%22Ni!%22


7

No it does not make sense. A totem pole is a complete thing. You can't group one complete thing. If you are actually speaking about multiple totem poles and mean that there are different kinds of them (which is what I think it means) you could perhaps say: Totem poles can be grouped into specific categories, depending on their location and the occasion ...


3

The only thing wrong with this, in terms of normal author-year citations, is that by. It should be in. In author-year citations, the citation "Name (NNNN)" acts as a noun meaning the paper itself. It can also act as a noun meaning the author(s). In this case it means the paper. Now, if it were about something that Li and others had found in their paper, you ...


3

Swan, in Practical English Usage (p585) has an explanation why it should be this and not it in the first example: 590 this/that and it          things that have just been mentioned      2  more than one thing When more than one thing has been mentioned, it generally refers to the main subject of discussion; this and that generally refer ...


3

Think of a pendulum, it swings from side to side; the trajectory is from extreme left to extreme right. The analogy here is to swing between two extremes of mood, from a very positive mood (exuberance) to a very negative mood (deep depression). Here the author is saying that both these extremes are an over-reaction to the situation. A positive situation ...


3

It is often the case in English that words which are clearly related, but differ in their number of syllables, have different stress, and sometimes different vowels. Consider "reside" vs "residence". One particular process which is applicable here (and in 'residence') is Tri-syllabic laxing, which usually "laxes" a vowel before an unstressed syllable and ...


3

The phrase you are asking about, "the spoon up your nose", is not the same as "to spoon up". Here "spoon" is a noun, and the lyrics go "You had the Dom Perignon in your hand / And the spoon up your nose". Calling someone a big shot indicates that person considers themself important and other people don't necessarily ...


3

"to come down to X" is an idiom. To understand "when it comes down to it", we first need to be familiar with the idiom. We can guess what the two "it"s refer to but a native speaker will understand it without trying to analyse the expression. Here is an interpretation you could use to help you understand: So I guess I wasn't ...


2

There is a small number of English words where the word is pronounced differently depending on what form it is: for example, the verb form and the noun form. One example is the word rebel: as a noun, it is pronounced /ˈreb.əl/ and as a verb is pronounced /rɪˈbel/. Refer is similar: the verb form is /rɪˈfɜːr/ and, although there is no noun form, reference ...


2

This is very slovenly writing. It is not the data but the study which provides the categories, the categories are not clearly distinguished and one of them is given two different names, the distinguishing measure is unnecessarily stated twice, in slightly differing forms, and a semicolon is used where a colon is called for. What the author means is ...


2

Yes, that sentence is ambiguous. It could mean the speaker likes to play football often or really enjoys playing it. As a native speaker, when I read the sentence, I think the speaker is saying that he really likes to play rather than likes to play often. To avoid confusion, you could use one these alternate sentences: I like to play football often. ...


2

This is an idiom for a disastrous loss or collapse. As the American Heritage Idioms Dictionary has it (via Reference.com): (the) bottom drops out Also, the bottom falls out. A collapse occurs, as in The bottom dropped out of the steel market, or When they lost the game, the bottom fell out of their hopes to make the playoffs. This term alludes to ...


2

This is only a partial answer. The second sentence would imply that there is only one university degree, whose ownership is shared by several people. Since this is not the case and each person has their own degree it should be Increasingly, a university degree is essential. For those who have one, there is plenty of work.


2

Your coworker was asking you to move the meat to your side of the table. “To pull” is used as a generic verb for moving objects, but also specifically refers to the act of moving something closer to you. The same is true of “to push” which is used as a generic verb for moving objects and also specifically meaning to move an object away. “Over” here is ...


2

The meaning prima facie is identical. The "one" is implied. The first represents the intrinsic noise, the second refers to ... The first one represents the intrinsic noise, the second one refers to ... The first category represents the intrinsic noise, the second category refers to... The first noise category represents the intrinsic noise, the second ...


2

The decision was made in the last hour. It is a decision of the last hour. in the last hour functions adverbally: When was the decision made? -- In the last hour. of the last hour functions adjectivally: To what part of the day (or of the crisis, project, operation, whatever) does the decision belong? -- It is a decision of the last hour.


2

In this case, "one" is referring to a type of addiction. However, the sentence is not quite correct for two reasons: The writer wants to tell the reader about another type of addiction, but using "here's one" makes more grammatical sense if the writer has already listed more than one addiction. Since the first clause of the sentence only says "You know ...


2

The pants in a [something-y] pants is just a way of turning an adjectival description into a noun. The more common phrase, one that has an actual dictionary definition, is smarty-pants: [Merriam-Webster] informal : SMART ALECK, KNOW-IT-ALL "If you give people the impression you're a smarty-pants, that's no good for sure." — Al Gore So, a smarty-...


2

It is an odd extract. It implies that "there are many definitions of 'what Shakespeare-language does'" And one of those definitions is "[make] (too) much in the brain light up in (too) many places". The use of the the word "definition" is odd, since nothing is actually being defined. Instead it is used to mean "part of the ...


2

I believe he is discussing “finishing touches” as in “retouching” and “airbrushing”. (I.e. the program is functioning like gimp, photoshop, lightroom etc, by modifying existing data) He also claims to be able to make such a system (program) himself. I could invent my own finishing system, but this is faster. Of course, the basic ideas, I create. The problem ...


1

No, you can't quite rephrase it as you suggest. It's a poorly-written and confusing sentence but what it's saying is: Furthermore, we know from developmental research that children (1) learn to think about mental states and (2) [learn] the reflex to think in terms of them [the mental states] in the context...


1

The part of the sentence that you've bolded uses the phrase "as in" to draw a comparison, in this case noting similarity of the apparent "bottom-up" source of conspiracy theories. The things that are being noted as similar are "fake news" conspiracies specifically and, in general, "the many conspiracy theories that have bubbled up in recent years". "As in" ...


1

This is a figure of speech (which I do not find fully effective). A crescendo in music is a progressive increase in volume. It is being used here to mean an increase in disparagement, which the author equates to degradation. I am not sure that disparagement actually results in degradation so the rhetoric seems strained to me. But that is just my personal ...


1

The more it (the "chain of being", an elitist hierarchy) degrades, the louder it gets. Crescendo of degradation is not a standard collocation but an idiosyncratic phrase. The "act of pretending" for Plato is synonymous with sub-ideal existence, each corrupt form being a degraded imitation of its paradigmatic ideal form. Lurking behind this phrase is ...


1

It means that people who are readers of the newspaper will send in their confessions, to be published in the newspaper. The sentence is giving you the extra information that the pieces will not be written by journalists, or the newspaper's regular writers, but by people who read it. By the way, it does not say that they will not be confessing to "a crime" ,...


1

You are correct that confess a secret means "admit a secret" or "reveal a secret". The reason that it says readers is that the specific people confessing secrets are readers of the newspaper, not just random members of the families.


1

"Itself" refers to "Rome", not "urban life". It is used to emphasize the noun: there were 856 small baths in the city of Rome itself (just in Rome, not its vicinities or any other regions of the Roman Empire). Here are some more examples: The shop itself (= only the shopand nothing else) started 15 years ago but the internet side of the business is ...


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