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You are correct about the meaning. "Ever" is being used here as an intensifier to emphasize each piece's uniqueness. Literally, it merely asserts the lack of exceptions.


1

For this specific example, I would say it is fine to leave it out - duplication of any word in English tends to sound odd, however if this was something similar, in something along the lines of a user-manual, then the repetition does make the intent slightly clearer. If you don't like the repetition, but do want the clarity, then any true synonym of also, ...


1

He's saying that you should take the evidence the author is mentioning into consideration. Basically, he's attesting a story that seems unbelievable, but he's saying that he's got a significant amount of evidence to back up that the story actually happened, and that Mr. Rip van Winkle was a very reliable source. As a result, a reader should consider these ...


1

Let's separate the parts, and see what they mean: "Modern philosophy begins with Descartes." Descartes' philosophy was revolutionary, and it started "modern" philosophy. "whose fundamental certainty is the existence of himself and his thoughts" "Whose" refers to Descartes. He is certain that his thoughts exist, and that he exists. This is expressed in ...


1

Referring to someone as "family" is common and idiomatic. Used this way, it always means a member of your own family. All of the following are acceptable: I think of him as family. I see him and his wife as family. Do you think of him as family? He's like family to you. We're all family here. The usage carries the implication that the ...


1

I think that the best way to express what you are trying to say is, "I hope that this pandemic will end by July" or "I would like this pandemic to end by July". Both sentences express the idea that you are hoping that when we get to the month of July, the pandemic will be over. You could be even shorter: "I hope this is over by July!"


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