5

Those all sound completely natural to me, a native speaker. "Pray" sounds more emphatic than "hope", and does not / will not are interchangeable here.


3

Break the sentence down to better understand it. It is saying that A is a view (an outlook, a way of regarding things). This view holds that various ideas, standards and procedures are the products of B (they arise from B). B comprises differing conventions and ways of assessing things. The authority of these ideas, standards and conventions applies only ...


3

Are you familiar with constructions like as quickly as possible? The author is quoting 'relevant texts' as fully (in as much detail) as he can without making his book too long (keeping it 'reasonably brief').


3

From Merriam-Webster's definition of contrary: on the contrary : just the opposite // The test will not be easy; on the contrary, it will be extremely difficult. What the phrase does is contradict a claim within the previous clause: The test will not be easy.→ The test will be just the opposite of easy. The phrase doesn't contradict the entire ...


2

Yes they are. So and that, when used to mean "in order that", are interchangeable, as seen in this example from Ngram: let us die that we may live. (original) let us die so we may live. let us die so that we may live. See also this poem. ...aplaud so we may evolve lizard to angel (original) ...applaud that we may evolve lizard to angel ...


2

I suggest you use commas in every introductory phrase. 1. You avoid confusion. 2. You stop debating with yourself whether to use a comma or not. Some authors leave the comma out for stylistic purposes ... but I think they are the minority. And their writing gets confusing at times.


2

In some cases, a comma helps prevent a possible misreading of the sentence subject as the object of the introductory phrase. A comma helpfully separates the subject -- chief of police in the example -- from a preceding verb (concluded) that has nothing to do with it. Without the comma, it can read as if the verb acts on the subject: "After the meal had ...


2

Everything sounds nice to me. Just the second one, I think that like this is better: "I pray every day that such a thing will never happen"


2

Going over this in my head, "such a thing" is a usage that seems to have been much more common fifty years ago. If a person was just saying this in conversation today, I think they would phrase it as: "I pray every day that doesn't happen." or "I pray every day that this doesn't happen." or, and I know this one is a little ...


2

There are a few things that need to be mentioned here. First of all, the tense doesn't depend on whether you're referring to a specific person/entity or a "non-specific" person/entity. The only difference is that the verb would inflect (i.e. "you eat" would become "he eats"). For example: If I turn on the lights, I will waste electricity. If you ...


2

5 tips to learn English easily. Q2) Yes, that is a to-infinitival clause functioning as an adjective, modifying "tips". Q1) No, it is not a complete sentence. An infinitival clause is subordinate, and there is no main clause for it to be subordinate to. This is an example of a sentence with a main finite clause followed by that subordinate clause: ...


2

The use of the clause Being entertained by smartphones and gaming gadgets is correct in your sentence. Here is an example of a noun clause using 'being'. Being constantly entertained by smartphones and gadgets could have serious consequences for children. The clause in your sentence seems to be a participle clause: https://www.englishgrammar.org/uses-of-...


1

Here's a composite response, based on your suggestion: No it's fine. Change the sentence slightly: If she rose early enough, we enjoyed breakfast together. The sentence appears to be referring to a regular situation rather than a single event. – Ronald Sole 2 hours ago If sometimes means "whenever". – LawrenceC 2 hours ago You might understand If ...


1

You seem to be making a lot of progress. (I am in the gym now and think about whether to call a friend.) First, about the sentence above: Usually with a sentence like this, you will see "... and am thinking about..." instead of think. There are some use cases for your formulation, though - think could be interpreted as present tense, which I ...


1

All 3 are equivalent and correct. before + pronoun + decide = before + deciding Many (but not all) verbs simply mean the same between to V and V-ing. For example, "I like to eat" is the same as "I like eating". wait ... before + V-ing = wait ... to + V wait ... to V and wait ... before V-ing are simply verb phrases.


1

You have eight hours [in which to complete this exam]. The bracketed element is an infinitival relative clause where "which” has "eight hours" as antecedent. The relative clause is understood as "to complete the exam in eight hours", where the PP "in eight hours" is a temporal adjunct within the relative clause. ...


1

"To" is required. The word "tell" is ditransitive, so you could say He told me that we should go there. There, "me" is the indirect object and the clause "that we should go there" is the direct object. But "propose" isn't ditransitive. In your example, the clause "that we should go there" is the ...


1

states that you find her working in her garden each time you visit her. That's to say that she spends most of her time in the garden and that's where you generally encounter her. suggests that she reacts to your arrival by choosing to work in her garden. It's the way that she deals with your appearance. It is like saying: Whenever I visit her, she puts on ...


1

The purpose of the word “to” in that headline is to further reveal the subject’s (Floyd Mayweather’s) intention or to provide to the reader why it was given. Thus, the answer to (a) is yes, adding the words “in order” to the headline would be an appropriate way of rewriting it. However, it should be noted this is not a complete sentence (something that is ...


1

Her family was happy [when she returned home]. Premliminary point: I would strongly advise you to avoid the term 'noun clause'. The classification of clauses should be based on their internal form rather than on spurious analogies with the parts of speech. In some modern grammar, "when" is analysed as a preposition, with the expression "when ...


1

I find the present tense unnatural (and somewhat illogical; you're discussing future events), but it is common usage by native speakers.


1

[1] Give me blood and I will give you freedom. [2] Be industrious and you will succeed in life. Constructions like these do not have the form or literal meaning of conditionals, but they serve indirectly to convey a conditional meaning. The first clause in each example is not an adjunct (your adverbial), but a main clause and thus these are compound ...


1

Tense depends on the time of the action of the verb, NOT on whether the subject is specific or non-specific. Subject : You (specific) : Zero conditional : If you have an unhappy childhood, you are more protective of your kids. Conditional type 1 : If you have an unhappy childhood, you will be more protective of your kids. Conditional type 2 : ...


1

Suppose that last Tuesday, John said these words to me: "I fed your fish yesterday and I will feed them again tomorrow." I could report this to you as follows: "John told me on Tuesday that he HAD fed my fish on Monday and he WOULD feed my fish on Wednesday." The words "had" and "would" are included to help you put ...


1

As has been pointed out in comments, it would be impossible for someone to win awards for something before they started, and yet your sentence does sound a little odd because the second statement reads as a dependent clause. It would be clearer if you wrote: She began her acting career in Hollywood and went on to win 15 awards for her work between 2008 and ...


1

Expressions 2 and 3 are not idiomatic, but 1 and 4 are fine. This website agrees, and has a very pretty picture on it: Jakub Marian "will after when" "We never use the future tense in time clauses (introduced by phrases like “after”, “as soon as”, “before”, etc.) in English."


1

She has provided five witness statements to the court in total. These statements detail acts of physical, mental violence etc. Yes, that is grammatically correct and has the proper meaning. Another possibility is: She has provided five witness statements to the court in total. These detail acts of physical, mental violence etc. The reason that the above ...


1

I agree with you: it doesn't seem like the best fit here. That's because I also interpreted 'on the contrary' to contrast the entire previous sentence, but I think it's only intended to contrast '(not) trustworthy'. However, it is correct. Perhaps it's not the best structure by the author. I would propose: The man wasn't very trustworthy. In fact, he had ...


1

The idea of replacing ", which" with ", and it" is not strict equivalence, but a a general similar meaning. The intention is to demonstrate to the student how a non-restrictive clause adds additional information. This additional information could often be added in a co-ordinated clause or even in a separate sentence. So the first example "This book is ...


1

"How" is a flat adverb (an adverb that has no -ly ending), and "how" is also an interrogative adverb (an adverb that is used to ask a direct question or an indirect question).{How are you doing?} Interrogative adverbs can also "modify some word or phrase in the sentence" in which they appear and "they often present a question about manner" {How did the ...


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