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22

One detail you might be missing is that I-70 is the name of a major interstate highway which travels across most of the country. I would say that most Americans are at least somewhat familiar with the route. Another thing that might be tripping you up is the author's use of "just east". "Just" in this case means "exactly" or "directly"- "Just East" can be ...


11

I wouldn't say that your question is wrong, necessarily, just that it implies something different than if you changed the word order. The book is on the table? If I heard this, I would interpret it as a surprised remark checking the veracity of a statement. For example: A: Where's the calculus book we need for the test tomorrow? B: Jimmy left ...


8

This isn't a complex pun, it's just a paragraph that builds incredulity for comic effect (although to be honest, it's not particularly funny). The entire purpose of the whole paragraph is just a poorly written, badly formatted, and frankly not particularly funny description of something that is supposedly an "in joke" to the n-th degree. The levels are ...


6

Succeed is an intransitive verb: it does not take an object. Its subject is companies. Horses run. Men breathe. Companies succeed. These are all complete sentences. In this sentence succeed is specifically an (unmarked) infinitive, the head of an infinitival clause which is the complement of the verb makes, understood in this construction (MAKE ...


6

The literal expected behavior is the following: if something is good, you like it. If something is bad, you dislike it. The "irony" in this case is doing the opposite: liking something ironically means liking something because it's bad. (Note that "bad" in this case often means out-of-date, uncool, unpopular, and so on--in other words, something a trendy ...


6

The dictionary defines polarization thus: polarisation (Noun) 1 The production or condition of polarity, as: a. A process or state in which rays of light exhibit different properties in different directions, especially the state in which all the vibration takes place in one plane. b. The partial or complete polar separation of ...


6

"In integration" seems not very felicitous (P.S. although it could be; I'm not sure). I would say Besides being used as a stand-alone module, (the module's name) can work in combination with our module. I've just googled up another possible expression: Besides being used as a stand-alone module, (the module's name) can work in conjunction with our ...


5

Yes, both refer to the same student. When there is ambiguity about who you mean, and you don't want to use names, you will usually use the same noun to describe that person. Here "the student" verbally harassed his roommate, who is likely also another "student", but to distinguish them you would say "the student" and "the roommate". Example: The ...


4

These numbers refer to specific courses at a specific school. Without further context, we can't tell which courses they refer to. If someone talks about 257 to you this way, they probably expect you to have sufficient context to figure out which course―very likely you and they would be attending the same college, so the numbers would have specific ...


4

In my opinion, the television news shows may be too fast paced with too many verbal shortcuts to be good sources to listen to. To start with, you may want to try audio books where what is being spoken comes from a written text. I think that it isn't the accent that is problematic as much as the content and pace of the speaking. There are some British movies ...


4

I can see why Eastwood's explanation might be a bit confusing. A clause consists of at least a subject and a verb; but most clauses contain more than just those two parts. All the phrases/constituents that Eastwood uses in his examples are parts of clauses: each of his examples is in its entirety a single clause. So neither clause contains only a verb and a ...


4

For the same reason he didn't just say "on I-70, in America." It's just a matter of additional precision and in this statement it's likely not necessary but just the author adding a bit of flavor to an otherwise very bland text.


4

It seems to me that while having its roots in the expression of "becoming stray" (becoming one without a definite direction in one's going), to "go astray" has started to lose its direct, or perhaps original, meaning and is now used mostly figuratively, I think. In my encounters with English (both through books, media, and everyday conversations) I cannot ...


4

Let's say there is a problem at work. I might ask you to "put out the fire." Please understand, there is no literal fire – that is, there are no flames. Instead, sometimes we talk about "putting out fires" in the workplace. It's figurative speech that's meant to evoke images of stamping out multiple fires. Saying, "Sara helped me put out this fire," is ...


4

The idea is that if a company allows some workers to work remotely (from home or another office), they are often not treated as well as workers who are on-site. Remote workers are not as "visible" as on-site workers and may be less able to work office politics. That could include making fortuitous contacts in/outside group at the coffee machine or in the ...


4

{An office culture}subject {that makes exceptions for remote people}rel.clause resultspredicate in {second-class citizenship}object, {putting a muzzle on your potential}participle clause. First, split this sentence in two by making the participle clause a separate sentence: An office culture that makes exceptions for remote people results in second-class ...


4

Yes, you should give it up. "Breaking wind" is simply an idiomatic, descriptive euphemism for passing gas anally or "farting." If you think about it, it actually makes sense. Try looking it up online for more information about its origins and etymology.


4

This use of an is a mannerism, a stylistic tool, a flourish of the language, used here to strengthen the satirical meaning of the simile - after all, it's not to be taken literally (learning being a very rational occupation). Normally, this would be an occupation as irrational as learning. The article in the original is an archaic form that mostly fell out ...


3

A very good question. Be cautious when you see 'anything but' in such context. There could be two possibilities. 'anything but [a positive word]' and 'anything but [a negative word]' The meaning of the sentence depends on the usage of 'positive' or 'negative' words after the format anything but. The key to understand this is, if it uses a '...


3

“As it were” can be a hedge and let the speaker say “not really like how I just said, but pretty much.” It is an idiom itself, and it can also indicate that a nearby phrase is an idiom. The purposes of this are widely varied, but include: To clarify that a metaphorical meaning is meant when a literal meaning could be taken: That stereo fell off the back ...


3

It is difficult to differentiate these two words. I think it helps a bit to say "fast" refers to movement, "quick" to reaction. But a lot of uses are idiomatic and a matter of the dictionary. A clean differentiation of "fast" and "quick" is not possible as there is an overlapping area. The matter is complicated as "fast" has two meanings, it can refer to ...


3

The word "phrase" has multiple definitions. In general it means any group of words that work together to convey meaning. Here the author seems to be using the more specific definition that a phrase is a primary part of speech, like a noun or verb, together with any modifiers. Thus, "dog" would by itself be a very simple phrase. "The big dog" is a slightly ...


3

Time was, some decades ago, people would say "Do an Internet search for ..." Then everyone started using Google and to google something became a common expression that means the exact same thing. In the same way "scan to PDF" would have been meaningless before scanners became common and PDF became the standard format for distributed documents. ...


3

You've been given a couple of good answers. I'll take a crack at #4 where you said you were "clueless". Yet when we think how narrow and how devious this path of Nature is, how dimly we can trace it, for all our lamps of science, and how from the darkness which girds it round great and terrible possibilities loom ever shadowly upwards, it is a bold ...


3

"You can accept your own answer in two days" means "in two days' time, you will be able to accept your own answer". "You cannot accept your own answer in two days" means "in two days' time, you will still be unable to accept your own answer". "Cannot" is the opposite of "can", after all. Other sentences equivalent to the SE rule include "you cannot accept ...


3

Prepositions are tricky.  You can accept your own answer in two days.  You can accept your own answer at the passing of two days.  The first sentence here is natural and common.  The second is clumsy and strange, but it has the same meaning.    The preposition "in" typically refers to some sort of container. ...


3

"accompany me to my office." is an implied quote suggested earlier by "tell us". It could be made explicit by writing: Sometimes, when we ran out of time and did not have space for any further activity, he used to tell us: "should anyone need any assistance or have any query, accompany me to my office" This makes it clear that the sentence has moved into ...


3

Maybe some letters are lost? From Oxford ALD: palliasse pal·li·asse [palliasse palliasses] BrE [ˈpæliæs] NAmE [pælˈjæs] noun a cloth bag filled with straw, used for sleeping on Syn: pallet Origin: Word Origin: early 16th cent. (originally Scots): from French paillasse, based on Latin palea ‘straw’. https://www....


2

Does the author clarify further in the passage that 'complement' can be part of a clause? To take your last, main question first, No, Prof. Eastwood does not make this clear in the snippet you provide. However, it may have been made clear earlier, or it may be made clear later, after Prof. Eastwood has laid what he considers an adequate foundation. What ...


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