"Lingua" is not an English word. To my knowledge it is only found (in English) in the expression lingua franca which comes from Italian and refers to a "common language" between two or more groups of people. It is a loan word.
When referring to the anatomical thing, we always say "tongue" and never "lingua."
"Lingua" itself is Latin, and this root is the ...
lingua isn't used on its own, but the latin root is part of a lot of words.
sublingual - below the tongue
linguist - someone who studies languages
bilingual - someone who speaks 2 languages
linguine (or linguini) - a delicious pasta, that somehow relates to tongues.
The Wikipedia link you provided, says
Each day, the fast begins at dawn and ends at sunset.
It is completely natural to use "begin" and "end".
The meal eaten to end the fast is known as iftar. - Wikipedia (Fasting)
It is even more common to use the word "break". J.R., in the comments section, added the link to an Ngram which shows the uses of ...
You should take care with the word "comprise". It has several senses, but some senses are proscribed. That means that some people think that these meanings are bad English.
It is correctly used to say
The whole comprises the parts.
The list of parts should be a complete list of all the parts that make something.
A football team comprises ten ...
The first sentence is correct.
Why did you go there puts the subject (you) of the sentence in the past and the verbs (go and do) describe the actions of the subject (you) which was already described to be in the past.
Techincally if your friend was being consistent their argument would have been Why did you went there and did that? Which is very incorrect....
The simple explanation is that in anatomy, latin terms are used (for adjectives "dorsal"= of the back, "ventral"= of the belly/front, "jugular"=of the throat, "ischemic", "sciatic", "cranial", ... ; or for parts, like "retina", "vena cava", "atrium", "vestibula", "cranium", ... ). In English, you will find "lingua"/"lingual" almost exclusively used in an ...
While there are grammar rules (people can recognise something as ungrammatical, even if they understand it) There are very few, if any, strict rules about meaning.
If a phrase of English has had the intended effect (of communication, of persuasion, or of beauty etc.) then it is correct.
The usual idiom is to "coin a word". This was developed from the ...
Nouns can be used attributatively. From that link:
In English grammar, an attributive noun is a noun that modifies
another noun and functions as an adjective. Also known as a noun
premodifier, a noun adjunct, and a converted adjective.
Task surface is the noun task being used in this way.
If you don't use task with another word like you would use ...
If you are in the house, looking at the washing line, you are going to (the line to) bring the washing back into the house.
If you are at the line, you are going to take the washing from the line back to the house.
Here, the bring and take relate to the house, not to the person who is fetching / bringing / getting / taking in the washing.
The other ...
The noun lingua is not used (Is it even in an English dictionary?). It's probably been made redundant in the formation of the English language from its ancestors. Tongue is always used as the noun, and can mean "language" as well, for example mother tongue (the language one learned from one's mother).
On the other hand, the adjectival form lingual is used, ...
I cannot think of any use of lingua however sublingual means under the tongue. Sub means under or below and lingual means tongue. The word tongue is not used for the anatomical structure alone. For instance, the tongue of the shoe.