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Here is the context:

These are the most effective exercises for building muscle as identified by science.

Does as identified by science means the same as which was identified by science?

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as identified by science ~= per science, or according to science, which science has identified.

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    I am confused because it seems no dictionary give this definition. Tell me please why someone would use this instead of using "per" or "according"? They are shorter – Dmytro O'Hope Jul 4 '18 at 21:07
  • The phrase as shown to us, for example, is quite common. For example, p9TAU was definitively identified as a human tau by dideoxy sequencing a fragment subcloned into M13 and demonstrating its very high homology with a region within the mouse tau sequence as shown to us by Dr. Gloria Lee. It might be loosely paraphrased "which has been shown to us by", or in your original, "which have been identified by". I understand it to be a restrictive relative clause. as introduces the clause. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Jul 5 '18 at 11:17
  • That is, in your example, I consider it restrictive. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Jul 5 '18 at 11:37

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