Here is the context:

These are the most effective exercises for building muscle as identified by science.

Does as identified by science means the same as which was identified by science?

2 Answers 2


Per identified or according identified is not used. That's why they used as identified. They are trying to stress to the reader that it is something that has been identified by science. If you say "according to science" it more seems to infer that they are referring to commonly known laws of science, which they are not. You could also say "which was identified by science" to mean the same thing.


as identified by science ~= per science, or according to science, which science has identified.

  • 1
    I am confused because it seems no dictionary give this definition. Tell me please why someone would use this instead of using "per" or "according"? They are shorter Commented Jul 4, 2018 at 21:07
  • The phrase as shown to us, for example, is quite common. For example, p9TAU was definitively identified as a human tau by dideoxy sequencing a fragment subcloned into M13 and demonstrating its very high homology with a region within the mouse tau sequence as shown to us by Dr. Gloria Lee. It might be loosely paraphrased "which has been shown to us by", or in your original, "which have been identified by". I understand it to be a restrictive relative clause. as introduces the clause.
    – TimR
    Commented Jul 5, 2018 at 11:17
  • That is, in your example, I consider it restrictive.
    – TimR
    Commented Jul 5, 2018 at 11:37

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