Titles such as "Doctor Bob" or "Sergeant Ben" are typically earned through achievements or qualifications, and are only really used in the context of the profession to which they apply. You wouldn't expect to meet a medical practitioner on holiday and have to call him/her "Doctor X"; you would just call them "X".
Prefixes such as "Sir" or "Lord" are reserved for people who have been granted those titles, and are used more frequently than titles such as "Doctor" or "Nurse" as a mark of respect. This isn't essential, however in a formal situation it would be expected (such as in a formal interview or in a letter).
"Mr", "Mrs", "Miss", etc. are normally reserved either for formal occasions such as in en email or if you do not know a person very well - if I didn't know Fred White very well, I would likely refer to him as Mr White in an email and maybe in person. You also refer to teachers by "Mr/Mrs/Miss surname" at school, though this doesn't always carry through to university. It is a mark of respect to someone you do not know very well, and a way to make conversation more impersonal.
On the whole though, prefixes and suffixes are rarely used in English. There are no real prefixes or suffixes used to denote age which cannot be misconstrued as insulting (see "Baby James" or "Old Man Bob"). This applies to social hierarchy too, though you might refer to your superior at work as "Boss" in the right scenario (such as as a nickname or if they request it of you).
Titles are typically earned in most English-speaking places. You don't usually just get a prefix or suffix for being old or rich; you get a title based on your achievements (or in rare cases, the achievements of your relatives such as "Prince Harry" or "First Lady").