How is this writer's technique called in English when the author seems to address someone in his epistle or a letter, but, in fact, is only indirectly addressing him (because, for example, that person is definitely not among the recipients of the letter)?
(Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them.) This will take place on the day when God judges people’s secrets through Jesus Christ, as my gospel declares. Now you, if you call yourself a Jew; if you rely on the law and boast in God; if you know his will and approve of what is superior because you are instructed by the law; if you are convinced that you are a guide for the blind, a light for those who are in the dark, an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of little children, because you have in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth— you, then, who teach others, do you not teach yourself? You who preach against stealing, do you steal? (Bible, The Epistle of Apostle Paul to Romans, 2:14-21)
The epistle quoted above was not addressed to the Jews, but rather to the Christian believers living in Rome at that time. Jews were not among the recipients of this epistle. However, the author is using pronoun "you" extensively while talking about the Jews -- as if he were directly addressing them in the epistle.
Here is another example (mine):
Our President has been saying that such recessions usually take only two to three months, and that they all got over with their recent recessions in such countries like Jumbiya and Delva. He even goes further and claims that this recession only hurt 30% of our economy, while the other 70% are still just fine. Well, sorry Mister President, but all your estimates are wrong. I don't know which sources you referred to to learn about the situations in Jumbiya and Delva, but the sad fact is they are still in the sate of a deep crisis, showing no signs of any possible recovery any time soon. Besides, where on earth did you get those 30%? It's not 30%, it's 67%! I would say that in the most favorable scenario...
Here the speaker is addressing his audience, which, in fact, does not include the President. Most likely, the President will never read this article and the author knows that very well. Nevertheless, the author is still acting as if the President were sitting right in front of him and listening to him carefully.
How is this technique called? Is there any specific term besides just something like "rhetorical speech"?