I want to know. what type of sentences these are and why do use past participle in these sentences instead verb first form please explain little bit deeply. and in 2nd example I want to know. Is it passive sentence if this is passive then please convert into active.
1)In order to understand the logic AND operation see the fig16.8 in which a lamp is connected to a battery using two switches S1 and S2 connected in series considered as two inputs. there are four possible states of these switches.
2) which are given below