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I want to know. what type of sentences these are and why do use past participle in these sentences instead verb first form please explain little bit deeply. and in 2nd example I want to know. Is it passive sentence if this is passive then please convert into active.

1)In order to understand the logic AND operation see the fig16.8 in which a lamp is connected to a battery using two switches S1 and S2 connected in series considered as two inputs. there are four possible states of these switches.

2) which are given below

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Firstly, I should say that I am a learner as you, but I love to share my thoughts. If there is a flaw, I will be happy to know them.

We use passive structures to concentrate on the object rather than the subject. In the case of the first sentence:

In order to understand the logic AND operation see the fig16.8 in which a lamp is connected to a battery using two switches S1 and S2 connected in series considered as two inputs. there are four possible states of these switches.

is connected to a battery ... : is a passive sentence. The author used passive voice to focus on the system's description.

connected in series ... : is adjectival phrase-connected is an adjective or reduced relative clause- I am not sure.

considered : is reduced relative clause- "which they are considered .... "

Which are given at below : It is a passive structure. If you want to convert it to an active sentence, you will need to mention a "subject" which, in this case, author fits perfectly. Compare:

  • The author gives aforementioned contents at below (Active Voice).

  • The aforementioned contents are given at below {by the author} (Passive Voice).

  • please explain little bit more – rajiv Dixit Jun 21 '16 at 6:14
  • @rajivDixit Which part(s)? – Cardinal Jun 21 '16 at 6:15
  • i understood everything what you said but you are also a learner of english that cause i want help from a good native speaker or teacher and i also thankful of you – rajiv Dixit Jun 21 '16 at 6:17
  • @rajivDixit That is cool. I am waiting, too. – Cardinal Jun 21 '16 at 6:19
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I think you are engineering student and you have copied this lines from book.

Technical English language is not always same as we use in daily .and specially when you are reading any book. author is trying to make you understand what he had written in it.so he will state all stuff like "i have done this" so he uses past participles.

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In order to understand the logic AND operation see the fig16.8 in which a lamp is connected to a battery using two switches S1 and S2 connected in series considered as two inputs. there are four possible states of these switches,which are given below.

In other words:If you want to understand the logic AND operation see picture 16.8. The lamp is connected (passive voice) to a battery using two switches S1 and S2 (which=S1 +S2 are) connected in series(which are=they are) considered as two inputs.

Number 2 is a relative clause.If it belongs to the previous sentence, then it is about four possible states of these switches.They are given below.

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