Hi I'm a beginner in English. I'm confused about the grammar in English.

This sentence is an explanation for the verb implement means from Oxford learners dictionary

to make something that has been officially decided start to happen or be used

Q1: In the sentence there is decided in it. I wonder about decided whether it is a passive form from of the infinitive verb decide or a new word typed adjective.

Q2: Is start to happen or be used same as start to happen or start to be used?

Q3: I know that is a relative clauses and it seems to be used for something, but why doesn't leave out even is an object?

  • Welcome to ell. I think you need to edit the title. I didn't change it since I was not sure what you intended. decided is a part of the passive "has been decided". Also "That" is a relative pronoun not a relative clause. – Cardinal Jul 26 '16 at 7:49
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    As a learner I suggest that you do not ask multiple questions within a single post. That makes the answers become long. You can ask about different topics in different posts. – Cardinal Jul 26 '16 at 7:55
  • I don't understand what you're asking in Q3. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Jul 26 '16 at 11:59
  • The wording used in this "Learner's Dictionary" definition is terrible. You might want to consider the regular Oxford dictionary, which defines implement as 'Put (a decision, plan, agreement, etc.) into effect'. – Alan Carmack Jul 26 '16 at 13:00

decided is the past-participle there ("something that has been decided") and yes, it is a passive construction.

We have decided the matter.

The matter has been decided.

Q2. We have the option to omit the second infinitive marker, to.

Don't just sit there. Start to tidy up or (to) wash the dishes.

The phrase gained popularity. It began to appear on billboards and (to) be used in TV ads.

My own personal preference when writing is not to omit to with the second infinitive if one of the verbs is transitive and the other intransitive, or if the first is an active construction e.g. to appear and the second is a passive construction e.g. to be used, unless the two verbs are the same:

The legal principle of acting in self-defense refers to a situation where a person has to kill or be killed.

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