Alternative energy sources are renewable and are thought to be "free" energy sources. They all have lower carbon emissions compared to conventional energy resources. These include Biomass Energy, Wind Energy, Solar Energy,...


It's not about the distance thing. So, Why "these"?


We tend to use these not just when objects are closer but also when we are referring back to items we have just mentioned.

In the example, these means these sources (just referred to). Sources is elided but understood.

It's another way of saying they with a slightly different nuance, emphasising the back reference.

Similar examples might be:

The locals are noisy. These (people) are not people I want to associate with.

The library books are grubby. These (books) are not fit for public use.

His reasons are not credible. These (excuses) are not excuses that I can accept.



  • Hi, thank you so much for your detailed answer with these links. – Flower Power Jun 18 '18 at 15:14

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