In a formal context, I'd use the term "Statement of Intent". To check myself, I did a quick search on that term and came up with examples like, this from the New Zealand Government group who are responsible for employees' safety at work. In business, you would usually have a "Mission Statement" describing the overall purpose of the business. The above are actual documents.
By intent, I mean it in the most general way possible, such that it can also mean what the person meant when he wrote or uttered a certain phrase.
Here, I would just call it a clarification.
You could say, "I may have been unclear. What I meant was...", or even less formally, "Sorry, I meant...", or "By that I mean...", or "What I mean to say is...". This clarification could be written or spoken.
(Wikipedia uses the word disambiguation for pages that clarify and separate different meanings for the same term: ambiguous means, "with more than one meaning", where it is not clear which meaning applies. Example word with two meanings: Android)