The bioassay aspect of the present invention herein may be carried out in a testing subunit or test cartridge designed for use with a bench-top or portable testing system and device such as that disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 9,023,640, which is incorporated by reference herein, in its entirety.

What does "that" refer to in the paragraph above? The device? The system and device as a single unit?

  • Though this queries answers haven't been accepted, and is several months old with no activity, I'd be interested in seeing where this quote actually came from if it still interests you to clarify.
    – user19179
    Commented Aug 23, 2020 at 22:29
  • @GWarner patents.google.com/patent/US9850547
    – athlonusm
    Commented Aug 24, 2020 at 7:29

2 Answers 2


A 'system and device' similar in function and use 'as disclosed in U.S...'

  • How can the OP identify this for themself next time?
    – CJ Dennis
    Commented Mar 21, 2020 at 22:23
  • Good point. 'Those that are' certainly is easier to understand.
    – user19179
    Commented Mar 21, 2020 at 23:08

The use of "that" here is essentially the sense defined in 4a of https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/that:

4a: the one : the thing : the kind : SOMETHING, ANYTHING
// the truth of that which is true
// the senses are that whereby we experience the world
// what's that you say

That is, it means basically "...such as the one disclosed..."

Note that this use is not very common, and usually comes up mostly in set phrases or, as in this case, in some legal or technical contexts (patent filings tend to have a lot of unusual English constructs which even native speakers can sometimes have a hard time with, due to a complicated history of legal language, etc).

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