Senators demanding a full debate over government spying and civil liberties objected, and lawmakers simply ran out of time.
What is the verb of subject "senators"?
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The main verb is "objected" (the past tense form of "to object")
The subject is "senators demanding a full debate over government spying and civil liberties", with the long participle phrase "demanding..." describing the senators who objected. The verb is intransitive and there is no direct or indirect object.
The sentence is hard to parse because it doesn't follow the principle of "end weight", in which later parts of a sentence or clause tend to be longer.