When I am using Java language. I need to look up some material in its official website: The sentence I copy from here. The author of this document give an definition of Java Class File:

An abstract representation of file and directory pathnames.

I feel confused with the above sentence. Does the author means "file" and "directory pathnames" or "file pathnames" and "directory pathnames"? On other words, Is there an ellipsed "pathnames" after "file"?

  • Just like "chicken and pork recipes", "car and truck tires"
    – TimR
    Commented Jul 28, 2015 at 17:23

1 Answer 1


Yes, it means "file pathnames and directory pathnames." Otherwise the definition would grammatically require a plural: "files and directory pathnames."

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