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I am learning English these days. Can somebody please tell the meaning of "Do come back later!" in the below paragraph? Why Do is used in the beginning?

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It's idiomatic. "Do" is not grammatically needed in this context, but it may be used, and has a pragmatic effect.

In this context, it turns the command into an invitation:

Do sit down.

means "I invite you to sit down" - really, only a marker of politeness.

So "Do come back later" is inviting you - maybe even imploring you - to come back later.

[With a different tone of voice, "Do sit down" might convey annoyance: "Stop interfering and sit down". But that is not really possible in the case you give.

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