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I found in the book that I'm reading, the use of the word weak. But as weak is put after a noun, then it's not an adjective. So I don't get its meaning.

Quotations:

"How did you first day go, dear?" the receptionist asked maternally.
"Fine", I lied, my voice weak. She didn't look convinced.

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    Yes, it is an adjective there. "He came in from the rain, his shoes soggy". my voice weak and his shoes soggy are so-called "absolute" phrases. These phrases do not contain a tensed verb; they supply information that pertains to the main clause. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Nov 9 '17 at 15:00
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    Temba, his arms wide... – mplungjan Nov 9 '17 at 15:16
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    It is an adjective. "My voice weak" is best analysed as a verbless clause functioning as a supplement. It's the verbless analogue of the non-finite supplement "my voice being weak". – BillJ Nov 9 '17 at 17:02
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A strong voice is loud, easy to hear. A weak voice is quiet and may tremble.

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    How does your answer address the OP's concern? – BillJ Nov 11 '17 at 14:24
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In English, an adjective can appear after a noun, but it has a different nuance -- more stylized, poetic, or dramatic -- from the more typical placement.

Standard:

I walked through the woods alone filled with dark thoughts and with a heavy heart.

Poetic:

I walked through the woods alone, my thoughts dark and my heart heavy.

A "weak voice" is one which is quiet or uncertain, and which possibly stutters or falters in a way that suggests fear, doubt, or insincerity.

As Tᴚoɯɐuo mentions in his comment, these kind of expressions are called "absolute phrases" and don't always contain a verb, but do contain information relevant to the overall sentence. BillJ (see comment below) classifies it as "a verbless clause functioning as a supplement". It can be changed to a finite clause by adding the "to be" verb:

My voice was weak as I replied to the secretary. "Fine," I lied.

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    Imho it would be even more "poetic, stylised" to dispense with determiners (a heavy heart, my heart heavy) altogether: I walked through the woods alone, thoughts dark and heart heavy. In which context it only really works with the adjectives after their relevant noun referents. – FumbleFingers Reinstate Monica Nov 9 '17 at 16:05
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    It is an adjective, but I'd analyse "my voice weak" as a verbless clause functioning as a supplement, where the NP "my voice" is subject of the clause. A finite clause can be reconstructed by adding "was": "my voice was weak". – BillJ Nov 9 '17 at 16:52

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