Unlike mathematics, there is no general formula to determine that, even if exists, it will face many exceptions because some words in particular language are from other languages as loan words.
This is problem for, I believe, all modern languages.
E.g. opposite of valid is invalid.
But if you believe in in- prefix can make antonym then the word (adjective) flammable could cause daily fire blaze. So inflammable is not opposite of flammable.
So while searching suffix types for words you also need to examine those words.
Example, difficult is adjective and suffix -y forms noun difficulty.
Also, a noun dynasty formed by the same suffix -y is not from adjective but another noun that is dynast.
Reading english articles of different contexts is the good way to be familiar with word derivatives.
Also Oxford Advanced Learners (International Student's Edition)
tried to analyse much about derivatives).
You may also learn more from this article about suffixes on the English Hints website.