There is a basic idiom in contemporary colloquial English:
to go x on [adjective] someone, for example: to go crazy on someone.
It may or may not use the "on" plus adjective part of the idiom.
"I know I'm late but please don't go crazy on me."
"The boss was furious when we were late. He went ballistic [on us]."
"My friend was acting so strange. She just went weird on us."
The on + pronoun or noun means while, with or in the presence of OR towards + pronoun or noun.
In "get, like, all Great Man History on you", the verb get with the meaning of become is used instead of go. Get as in: to get angry, to get happy, to get lazy. The word like is just thrown in there. It has no useful function other than trying to sound cool in some way. It is not usually found in decent writing and should, in any case, be set off by commas. it is used in speech, not writing.
The go + adjective on someone can also be used with get and to mean become:
He got, like, crazy on me". They got weird all of a sudden.
Translation: He became crazy with me. He acted badly in some way. Great Man History is just an image that means someone who knows all about history. Similar to Father Time, an old, bearded man who represents time.
In short, the author is saying he does not want to become like a boring, old history professor to the reader [on you=to the reader], but: the Moguls, [etc.]
And, like, I hope I didn't to get too High School Teacher on you even if I sound like a textbook. :)