Is it possible to use a verb directly after a prepositional phrase? For example,
Is the sentence of "In this picture are some wonderful details" correct?
Yes. It is called the subject-dependent inversion. Here's another example taken from Huddleston & Pullum (2002):
Up in my room, on the nightstand, is a pinkish-reddish envelope that has to go out immediately.
However, keep in mind that the inverted version is less common than the non-inverted one, some wonderful details are in this picture. Or some speakers may opt for the existential version there are some wonderful details in this picture. Since there are some pragmatic constraints that cannot be violated, writers don't invert the order for no reason.