Read the following sentence
He played the game , knowing that they'd lose.
Here the subject of the highlighted phrase is the subject of the main sentence (ie 'he' is the subject) . Generally, for the participle phrases, subject of the main sentence is their subject , but i came across tho today in an article. Read the following
The theme of a story can be conveyed using characters,setting, dialogue, plot, or a combination of all of these elements.
Here the gerund participle phrase doesn't seem to be modifying the subject ('Theme'). It is rather modifying the agent that performs the action (the agent is although not given) . I don't know how to know what is the subject of the participle phrases used in passive sentences . I am asking this because in the passive voice, the subject is acted upon by the verb. According to this ,'theme' is the subject in the second sentence .When a participle phrase is used in passive sentences like i did in the second sentence , the subject of the passive voice is also the subject of the participle phrase, but the second sentence doesn't follow that.How do I know what is the subject of the participle phrase phrase when it is used in passive voice .