What would be the correct sentence from the below two:
- For a second time, in a few months we decided to meet.
- For the second time, in a few months we decided to meet.
Is one of the two incorrect or can they be used interchangeably?
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In general, use a/an when you're referring to one thing out of many similar things, and the when you're referring to a specific thing. In your example, you can use either article. There's a very slight difference between them, but it doesn't have a substantial effect on the meaning.
For a second time.....
This suggests there might be other similar second times, or perhaps a third, fourth and fifth time. A second time is one out of many similar times.
For the second time....
There is only one second time, and this is it.
My take on it (disregarding the actual meaning of the example sentences) is that for a second time just means 'again (after one previous occasion)'.
For the second time implies that the speaker knows from a future perspective how many times altogether the event happened, and that this was the second of them.