The reason your sentence doesn’t work is because give takes a direct object and an indirect object. The direct object is the thing that was given, and the indirect object is the entity it was given to. In the passive phrasing, “I” is essentially the indirect object and “an apple” is the direct object.
Steal takes a direct object (the item that was stolen). It does not take an indirect object. The reason for this is because, if it did take an indirect object, it would mean “the item was stolen to the person” - and you don’t steal to a person, you steal from a person.