From Mastering the National Admissions Test for Law by Mark Shepherd, page 181-182, last para
Gruesome as we may fi nd the histories of formal dictatorships both of the left and of the right, however, it is to be doubted that the fear engendered by such regimes ever succeeded in percolating through to a visceral level as the totally unpredictable statein- waiting, one that repudiates even the minimal codes of accountability that are, admittedly, often breached by the formal states. It is these that constitute the quasistates, often meticulously structured by shadowy corporations of power that mimic the formal state in all respects except three: the already noted lack of boundaries, the lack of government secretariats with identifi able ministries and, by extension, the responsibility of governance. The quasi- state, complete with a hierarchy of elites and its own monitoring – i.e. policing and enforcement – agencies, may indeed look to a future world order but, in the process, humanity is blatantly declared expendable, and the actualisation of that new order is limited to a close cabal, proliferating through warrens and cities, and contemptuous of boundaries. [Original source]
34 Which of the following cannot be inferred to be a defi ning characteristic of a quasi-state?
(c) It seeks to mimic a formal state (d) It has less responsibility than formal states
(c) INCORRECT. Quasi- states are described as mimicking formal states whilst ‘lacking the responsibility of governance’. (d) INCORRECT. See (c).
The answer contains lacking, but not the bolded. Did I misread? I rejected that the lack of applies to the responsibility of governance, because it would've been written a third time? Please explain the steps or thought processes, to try to resolve by myself in the future? What's this phenomenon called?