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  1. If one needs to say that the product may be purchased in a certain currency, which preposition should he use?

The product may be purchased (in | for | with | by) U.S. dollars.

  1. If one needs to say that the product may be purchased for a certain amount of money, which preposition should he use?

The product may be purchased (in | for | with | by) 40 dollars.

  • The product may be purchased in US dollars./for 40 dollars. – Khan Apr 29 '15 at 12:42
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The product may be purchased in U.S. dollars.

In my opinion ... when you say this, the implication is the seller accepts currencies other than U.S. dollars, and there may be a possibility the seller would convert the currency for you - i.e. the sentence is short for "The product may be purchased in an amount of U.S. dollars."

The product may be purchased for U.S. dollars.

Doesn't make sense. Purchasing means you get something in exchange for money, it doesn't make sense to get money in exchange for something (that's selling, not purchasing).

The product may be purchased with U.S. dollars.

This would be the typical way to say this. The implication is that the seller requires you to have U.S. dollars, otherwise he/she won't sell it.

The product may be purchased by U.S. dollars.

Doesn't make sense. It sounds like you are saying the U.S. dollars themselves are doing the purchasing.

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  1. with
    You're saying with what the item will be paid for.
  2. for
    You're saying what price the item goes for.
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English prepositions are endlessly tricky.

"With" means that the object accompanies something else, or is used as a means to accomplish something else. Note these are two very distinct meanings. "I assembled this bookcase with Bob." Bob worked with me on the project. We built it together. "I assembled this bookcase with a screwdriver." The screwdriver was used as a tool.

"For" indicates purpose, or it can mean approval or support. "This screwdriver is for Phillips-head screws." I am describing it's purpose. "Senator Jones is for new gun laws." He favors or supports such laws.

"In" can mean, located on the interior of, like, "A new battery is in the cell phone." It can also identify a unit of measure, a language, etc. "The length is given in inches." "The book is written in German." It can describe a condition. "Sally and I are deeply in love, and deeply in debt."

"By" can be used for a means of accomplishing something. "We paid by credit card." "We travelled by car." It can indicate passage past a place. "We passed by your house." "We drove by the grocery store." Adjacency. "The barn is by the house."

There are other shades of meaning for all the above.

So in these cases:

The product may be purchased WITH U.S. dollars.

The thing you are using to buy the product is U.S. dollars, so you are buying it WITH dollars.

The product may be purchased FOR 40 dollars.

This is the amount required to accomplish the purpose of making this purchase.

You could make logical arguments why other prepositions would work in each case, but these are the ones normally used by native speakers.

Note other related sentences:

All prices are given IN US dollars.

This was the currency used to express the price.

I paid WITH a credit card.

A credit card was the tool or means of payment. But

I paid BY credit card.

A different way of saying that this was the mechanism. But WITH indicates a specific object, so an article is required, while BY indicates a more general concept, so no article is used. But:

I paid WITH cash.

I paid IN cash.

Both valid. The p

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    Propositions are "tricky" partly because we try to put them in a box, instead of accepting that their meanings are a bit elastic and multifaceted. For example, you say: "With" means that the object accompanies something else, or is used as a means to accomplish something else. Sure, but with has other uses as well; Collins lists 9, Macmillan 16. Try to simplify things too much, and we'll get another question asking, "Is it shaking in rage or shaking with rage?" – J.R. Apr 29 '15 at 15:00

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