Recently I was doing some english quiz and was totally knocked out with the folowing phrase: "Would you like a glass of water?" In that quiz I had to determine the tense of this phrase. And was completely lost between Present Simple and Past simple. So what tense is it?
It is present tense. If the question had said "Would you have liked a glass of water?" then it would be past.
"Would you like" is neither a present nor a past tense, it is conditional (mood), here not for irreality, but for polite questions as in Would you help me, please?
No one would have any problems if English conjugation tables were in this form:
Pr I do
Pt I did
F1 I will do
C1 I would do
For the sake of simplicity I have given only the I-form.
Pr present tense
Pt past tense
F1 future 1 ( simple tense)
C1 conditional 1 ( simple mood)
But English grammars have conjugation tables only with present/past/future tense. Conditional, which is rather frequent, is hidden somewhere, either in the chapter mood or in the chapter modals.
The perfect tenses should be
Pf I have done (done is v3, the verb form 3 of the base forms)
PP I had done
F2 I will have done ( have done is infinitive perfect)
C2 I would have done