I think you should definitely define your terms or use ones that are usually used in such papers, as relaxing commented.
This is because both neighborhood and community are ambiguous. Both can refer to either the people of a certain geographic region or to the region and the people living there, and the former word can also refer to only the region. I do not suggest using neighborship as (a) it is not apparent what that means, and (b) the suffix -ship is outdated and its use in such words as township does not provide an unambiguous meaning.
As a native speaker of American English, when I hear the word neighborhood I think of a
an inhabited region or subregion that includes its structures (buildings, houses) and the people who live there, including their pets and possessions; and basically anything else found in it, for instance, noise, crime, trash cans and even the trash itself. It can also include things such as the neighborhood watch, the neighborhood association, the management company that runs the neighborhood association, apartment owners, managers and agents. For me, I also think of its geographical characteristics (hills, rivers, mountains, etc),
I would not think of neighborhood as meaning only the people who live in such a region. However, the Oxford English Dictionary gives such a meaning as its first definition of the word:
The people living near to a certain place or within a certain range; neighbours collectively.
I am surprised at this, because, again, this is not how I use the word. But I also do not say near to and generally advise non-native speakers not to do so (we say close to but near; I live near the river.)
Given that neighborhood can mean
1 a populated geographic region
2 the people who inhabit such a region
3 the region but not the people
it is highly ambiguous.
Community can mean
1 a group of people
2 a group of people and the place where they live
See Oxford Dictionary online: A particular area or place considered together with its inhabitants
I recommend that you define your terms and/or use the terms as they are normally used in your academic field.