This is my take; I'm an Ayurvedic physician!
Literally, गरम (pronounced - ga ra m) in Hindi is 'hot' in English - loud and clear.
But, in India, what we mean by गरम is producing body heat after the digestion. In Ayurveda, eggs, eggplant, chili, black pepper, etc. are considered as गरम, because the heat is actually produced when they are metabolized by our digestive system. The Ayurvedic term for that is 'विपाक' (pronounced -vee paa k). Precisely, विपाक denotes very vast meaning which
explain to the digestion, assimilation, metabolism, absorption and
bio-transformation up to the cellular level of ingested drug or food.
It is interesting to know that Ayurveda classifies the effects of drug/food according to its 'end' effects and not the ephemeral effects. For instance, we all call a 'cold drink', but is it really cold? NO. The end effects of such drink, at a cellular level, according to the holistic science of Ayurveda, is acidic. In this way, Ayurveda may consider today's cold drinks as 'heaty drinks'.
The विपाक also has a time factor. Depending upon the state of the food/drug, the विपाक changes. This means the same food which is 'cool' becomes 'heaty' depending upon the 'time factor'. The best example I can think of is mango. A raw mango, according to Ayurveda, is 'heaty'. But then, a fully ripened mango is 'cooling' and nourishing.
Now, when we (Indians) don't find any suitable word, we take some liberty and make our own word for that. Especially in a folk medicine practice, it's widely done. I, myself, have done it to make foreigners understand. Though it looks silly, but ultimately, it conveys the meaning. For internal purposes, we set the closest term for it. And it's always 'safe' to say, 'We call it as...[newly coined term]'.
And, the term for such food is heaty. It's not an English word yet; but it's steadily getting accepted by many.
Some of the examples are here:
What do “heaty” and “cooling” in TCM really mean? - Men's Health, a reputed magazine
The list of 'heaty' foods - A Chinese website on Traditional Herbs
What are heaty and cooling foods - Some blog
If you google 'heaty foods' in Google News, you find many magazines and dailies are accepting this term. Maybe, some day, we'll have a better word for this. Till then, there's no harm in using it. If a native speaker asks, you may simply explain that...
heaty food - the food that produced body heat after being digested (self-made definition)