She has lived in this city for her whole life.
For the above sentence, can I write,
She has lived in this city her whole life.
If yes, is there any difference between them?
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Phrases which describe a duration of time, or end with less than, more than, or fewer than often omit the preposition for. This is a very common idiomatic usage in everyday speech, and not governed specifically by a rule of grammar.
She was only here (for) a week.
Don't watch television (for) more than two hours.
I've been waiting (for) less than a day.
I was only gone (for) an hour.
I slept there (for) fewer than three nights.
In your example, both versions have the same meaning. In formal writing and for clarity, it is probably best to include the "for."