1

SOURCE (Longman's dictionary)

Please do me a favor to teach me grammar structure as following sentence

All the organizations involved have sent urgent appeals to the government, asking for extra funding.

Questions

  1. involved, is it adj?
  2. involved, why after (All the organizations)?
  3. why use "," split two sentences?
  • 1
    Let's start with the subject. What does organization mean here? One structured group? Many? Or the activity of organizing? – Davo Jun 29 '17 at 1:54
  • Sorry @Davo I have used wrong word , not "included" ,it should be "involved" – willie Jun 29 '17 at 2:06
  • 1
    Ah. I believe this is an ellipsis of an adjectival phrase: All the organizations (which are/were) involved... – Davo Jun 29 '17 at 2:10
  • 1
    When you quote a source, please always include a link to that source in your question. This makes it easier to write a useful answer. Also, when citing an online source, you should copy and paste the text rather than trying to re-type it; this often introduces errors, as you found. – P. E. Dant Jun 29 '17 at 2:36
  • 1
    “Involved” is an adjective here. It’s one of a number of adjectives that can occur both attributively and postpositively, though with different senses. For the sense intended here, it is a postpositive i.e. it occurs after the noun that it is modifying. The clause asking for extra funding is modifying appeals and is inherently restrictive, so no comma is required. – BillJ Jun 29 '17 at 5:52
3

You present the following example sentence from the Longmans dictionary definition of the verb appeal.

All the organizations involved have sent urgent appeals to the government, asking for extra funding.

The answers to your questions are:

  1. Involved is the past participle of to involve, used here as an adjective
  2. Present and past participles such as involved occur fairly commonly after the noun they modify. Adjectives of the kind are called postpositive or postnominal adjectives.
  3. The comma in your sentence does not "split" two sentences, since "asking for extra funding" is not a sentence.
  • 1
    (+1) Thanks for mentioning the error(s). I just wrote the answer based on the original source that I'd found on the internet. – Cardinal Jun 29 '17 at 2:26
  • 1
    hi, it seems you were prejudiced about one of my questions and accused me for some things that are inaccurate, Shias and Sunnis have the same opinion over this matter (my question); however, there are other ideological or historical debates, but it has never been the cause of war; Wahhabism and ISIS which are supported by Saudi Arabia, and are the result of Britain interferes and support of Arabs against Ottomans is another story; you can delete this message and for more discussion, we can talk in a chat. – Ahmad Jun 29 '17 at 12:37
  • 1
    @Ahmad The subject is off topic here, and your comment has nothing to do with this question or answer. – P. E. Dant Jun 29 '17 at 13:50
  • 1
    @P.E.Dant you say this to me? Did you forget that you started it? As I said, you can delete these comments. I just replied your comments which was out of a prejudice. – Ahmad Jun 29 '17 at 14:12
1

Participles can take several roles, they can be used after nouns to describe them.

Here, the past participle involved means which are involved. In fact, you can consider the sentence as a reduced relative clause:

All the organizations [which are] involved have sent urgent appeals to the government, asking for extra funding.

Regarding your last question, as I said above, participles can act as adverbs. When a participle clause is used as adverb, it's preceded by a comma.

In details, that participle adds a new information to the previous sentence: that the appeal was about requesting extra fund.

  • 1
    "Involved" is an adjective here. The gerund-participle clause asking for extra funding is not adverbial; it is modifying the noun appeals and is inherently restrictive, so no comma is required. – BillJ Jun 29 '17 at 6:06
  • 1
    @BillJ Hmm, so you say that the appeals are asking for extra funding? I thought Organizations are asking for extra funding. By the way, what is the name of such participles? Adjunct? – Cardinal Jun 29 '17 at 7:01
  • 2
    The appeal gives the details, cf. "An appeal asking for extra funding has been sent ...", where the clause is clearly modifying the noun "appeal". Similarly, in a relative construction: "The organizations involved have sent the government urgent appeals which are asking for extra funding", where the relative clause is modifying the NP "appeals". "Asking for extra funding" is a gerund-participle clause. – BillJ Jun 30 '17 at 10:34
  • 1
    @BillJ That comma made think that's a adverbial participle. – Cardinal Jun 30 '17 at 12:44
  • 2
    No, it's not adverbial. It's a modifier in noun phrase structure, i.e. appeals to the government, *asking for extra funding. – BillJ Jun 30 '17 at 14:14

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.