What do you call the pointy parts of a text bubble that's not the tail? Here, in the image, we see three pointy things protruding out of the text bubble on the four "sides" of some of the text bubbles, is there a particular name for them? I know the other pointy part is called the tail, but I am wondering what the three pointy things on all four "sides" are called.
It represents the radio transmission of someone talking to the character using spikes, in this case a triple spike. Usually it is for announcements or sound effects. I don't think there is an official name for the one you have shown, but it is close to other examples.
As a direct description of their appearance I agree with @PPH, however as @DialFrost points out, there are other levels of understanding.
An artist is likely to refer to any changes (and just the changes) to the standard speech bubble as "Decorations", and any consistent set of decorations as a "Style".
The writer might additionally refer to individual styles as "Indicators" or "Modes", but it's more common for the artist to simply read "character X yells help" and apply the yell style, which consists of the three spikes decoration, with the text help, with the tail pointing to character x.