7

These words are homophones. If you are attempting to distinguish them by sound you will fail, as there is no difference in sound (there may be differences in some dialects, but none that I am aware of) So these words are homophones. They have the same sound (but different meanings) It is appropriate to call these words homophones. You can distinguish ...


4

It's a corruption of "got to" as in "you've got to be kidding." So far as I know it's only a common expression in the USA. It's generally pronounced with the "t" sound. However, if the speaker is slurring the words together (which is the corruption), the hard "t" sometimes sounds more like the softer "d" sound. Whether the pronunciation is "t" sound or "d" ...


4

The short answer is: do not say "an reliable"; do say "anunreliable." Don't worry about it sounding like "a nunreliable." This happens all the time in English. Often there's no problem at all, because "nunreliable" isn't a word, and even if it were, the context would probably make the meaning clear. You're not the first person to have this problem. In ...


3

The sound you are hearing is probably a "glottal stop". Some languages treat the glottal stop as just another consonant like p, t, or k, but many (most?) native English speakers use it without even knowing of its existence. Your question mentions that your native language is Croatian. I don't know much about that language, but Wikipedia's article on Serbo-...


3

This depends on local dialect and accents, but in Received Pronunciation it would be pronounced just as it looks, as two separate words, not slurred together. I apologize that I neither know the IPA nor how to type it on a standard UK keyboard, but in RP it sounds like "not enuf"


2

There is no contrast between /s/ and /z/ in this position. But "kids" is typically transcribed with the phoneme /z/. Note that in English, the typical pronunciations of the words "adze", "adds" and "ads" all sound the same. Keep in mind that the phoneme /z/ is not always pronounced as a fully voiced [z]. In word-final position, /z/ may be less phonetically ...


2

There is a rule to determine whether a final s is pronounced with an 's' or a 'z' sound. If the final sound in the base of the word is voiced, we use the voiced alveolar sibilant /z/. If the last sound in the base is an unvoiced consonant, we use /s/.


2

Some accents would use a glottal stop for t in this context, but if you are listening to an American speaker, and you are hearing something that sounds to your like an "R" sound, it is more likely that the sound is a voiced alveolar flap (or tap), transcribed in IPA as [ɾ]. In most varieties of American English, the voiced flap/tap sound can be used for t ...


1

The normal pronunciation, and usage in the video is /dʒ/. However, voicing is the only difference between /dʒ/ and /tʃ/. The articulation is identical, so /dʒ/ may sound like /tʃ/any time voicing is 'weak'. Voiced phonemes in English tend to 'lose' some of their voicing when they follow a voiceless phoneme. In this situation, the voice 'switches on' slightly ...


1

When writing / / you are indicating a phonemic transcription. In unstressed position, the vowels [] are not phonemically distingushed. They are treated as variant productions of the same vowel. Different transcriptions may use /ʌ/ or /ə/ to indicate this vowel. However "our" is normally transcribed as /aʊə/ at least for the British pronunciation.


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