The first 2 examples have already specified "The evidence" so "it" refers to the evidence. In the third example there is nothing to qualify what "it" is so the meaning must be inferred from the context, in this case it is generally accepted that "it" refers to the current situation.
You could avoid this wording by saying
The current evidence is ...
"Man", yes. "He", no - but "him" and "his", yes.
From a historical perspective, this is because "man" was a originally gender-neutral word meaning "person" or "human" (incidentally, "human" comes from the Latin "homo" while "man" comes from the Sanskrit "manu" - their similarity is purely coincidental. Also not to be confused with the Greek "homo" meaning ...
Leaving aside current views on gender identity, historically, "man" has been used as an umbrella term for both genders - and it still is, unless someone objects to it. "Mankind" refers to all human beings (although the term "womankind" has been coined from this to denote only women). When Neil Armstrong said "one giant leap for mankind" he was referring to ...
You are opening a "can of worms!" This is a topic that can cause strong emotions.
It is also not a matter of grammar, but a matter of style.
English doesn't have a pronoun that singular, non-neuter and can apply to both men and women. Different authors have dealt with this in different ways.
In the past, the most common way was to use "he" for a singular ...
It depends on what the pronoun is referring to.
If you said the beans that's countable, and you'd refer to them in the plural:
"I've dropped the beans on the floor and now I need to sweep them up."
If you called it a mess, you'd refer to that in the singular:
"I've dropped the beans on the floor and made a mess! I need to sweep it up."
Similarly, if ...
The dictionary definition of "it" is:
used to refer to a thing previously mentioned or easily identified.
So, in asking whether to use "it" you need to ask - has the phone been identified?
You could begin by asking "Is that your phone?", then it is clear you are talking about that specific phone. Follow-up questions could then use "it", for example, "...