It's not always true, especially in spoken English.
English, as well as many other languages, is built around constructions that go subject-verb-object. Of course, there are complete sentences where no object is required (eg 'The dog barked'), but in complex sentences, it is unusual for a verb to appear at the end of the construction. When it does, there is ...
It's ambiguous because you have not specified if the selection should be singular.
Webster and others define which;
what one or ones of a group
what particular one or ones
In the examples they make clear you use the subject to clarify the one or ones in context.
which tie should I wear
kept a record of which employees took their vacations in July
You can use "it", which would be taken to refer to the taxi itself. If you use "he", "she", or "they" you would not also use "the driver" later on; you might say "and then look(s) at you". These days "they" with the plural forms of the verbs is probably the best choice.
Please note my ...
Pronoun reference is not really a matter of correctness. Some people seem to believe that a pronoun can refer only to the most recent noun phrase that matches in number, gender, and animacy (in the cases of he, she, and it). But this is a false belief, as the following examples illustrate:
I can't fit the trombone into the suitcase because it is too small.
The question "What are they?" implies that the questioner believes that there are many things.
Saying "It's ...." means that there is one thing. "It's a pen and a book" means that the one thing is "a pen and a book" considered to be one object. Why does a person think that "a book and a pen" ...
There are several ways to answer that question, but since it employs a certain pronoun (they), the natural tendency is to respond in kind.
What are they?
They are a pen and a book.
Just as naturally, a native speaker might use a determiner to answer individually with more specificity:
What are they?
This is a pen and this is a book.
There is nothing ...
The word it in that sentence refers to the word life that precedes it.
Restated not using it:
requirement to sustain life (as we know life)
It means the form of life that we are familiar with.
It's probably worth mentioning that "life as we know it" is a fixed and very common phrase (try googling it). It allows for the possibility that there are ...
Thou in current English usage is a noun, it is a unit of length meaning thousandth of an inch. You usually encounter thous in electronics PCB layout and other manufacturing contexts. It's more common in British influenced regions, whereas US tends to use mils.
So this is one possible reason why Grammarly would think it's a noun instead of pronoun. As others ...
There's a dissonance between one, which has a formal feeling, and head screwed on right, which is very colloquial.
Apart from that, I think it's better to stick with they:
They need to get their heads screwed on right.
(note plural heads),
or with one:
One needs to have one's arguments ready.
In this sentence, where is a conjunction. According to the Cambridge Dictionary, as a conjunction, it can either mean in a place that, or in a situation that.
In your sentence, no place is referred to, but meeting John Paulson is a situation, and in that situation the speaker was able to introduce himself.
This meaning is used a lot in mathematics, for ...
The general requirement is that a pronoun must agree in plurality (singular versus plural) and perspective (first/second/third person) with the noun it’s substituting for.
‘you’ is a bit of a special case though, as English doesn’t really have second-person nouns in most cases. A noun in English is only ever second person if it directly identifies who or ...
As you say, the first who refers to the noun immediately before it: a man.
In general you go to the first noun immediately preceding the pronoun and that will be the antecedent. There are exceptions, but this is not one of them: the second who refers to Saudi nationals [in the U.S.].
You should be consistent within a phrase or sentence, if you are referring to the same group. Either:
How do people cope with .... if they're constantly...
How do you [people] cope with .... if you're constantly....
(The word people is optional as an appositive in the second example.)
Quote from Singular “They” - APA Style:
The singular “they” is a generic third-person singular pronoun in English. Use of the singular
“they” is endorsed as part of APA Style because it is inclusive of all people and helps writers
avoid making assumptions about gender. Although usage of the singular “they” was once discouraged
in academic writing, ...
This is why I find Ngram to be a dangerous tool. Both “there was no time” and “it was no time” are grammatical and idiomatic, but they have different meanings. Ngram cannot tell you that.
It was no time to
is referring to time as identifying an event, an occasion, a situation. See item 2 in full definition
I would like to add that 'any' has a separate use where it applies the meaning 'it does not matter which/where/what', it can be any of it/anywhere/anything/anyone.
With this season ticket you can take any buses.
Therefore I have the feeling that the question may try to point out that within a specific group any individual is allowed to speak ...
To bring together several threads here:
Firstly, this is probably a bug in Grammarly, because a definite article ("the") would never be used before a pronoun. It probably doesn't have "thou" in its dictionary (since it is never used in modern English), so may be guessing wrongly that it's a noun.
However, the sentence is grammatically ...
Thou is a subject form. You would need to say all of thee, because it's the object of a preposition. It's not correct to put an article in front of that pronoun.
As Lambie points out in the comment, thee is singular, and doesn't make sense with all of, unless you are addressing one person, and saying that you like them from head to toe.
You may be confusing a convention:
You and your friends are clever
He and his friends are clever
We and our friends are clever
They and their friends are clever
My friends and I are clever.
The first person inversion "My friends and I" is conventional (and is the only instance that occurs) as it puts the speaker in the lesser position and thus ...
ones on its own is not correct, but the ones would be OK, though perhaps rather informal- fine for spoken English, but less acceptable in written English.
This NGram graph shows that those is very much more common in written English. Judging by the author's names, most of the instances of the ones were written by non native English speakers.
Here is a ...
You are correct that if you wanted to use "many things to do" or "few things to do" the noun is necessary; leaving it out would be incorrect. "Much to do" and "little to do" do not require the explicit noun; putting it in would also be incorrect.
The distinction (as nschneid just said, I see) is that "many" ...
Good point. It's not short for a number of things; you could think of it as short for an amount of work or stuff to do. (These are mass nouns.)
I have a lot of stuff to do.
I have so much stuff to do.
I have very little work to do.
Etc. For whatever reason, "I have many/few to do" is not the expression.
A quick browse of the uses of these and those should answer your question.
The choice of pronoun depends on the situation.
A: What do have on top of the cupboard?
B: They are books.
A: What do you have in the boxes?
B: Those are books in the far box. The other boxes are empty.
A: What's in the parcels?
B: These are books in the parcel I'm holding; those are ...
Because they doesn't carry any information about distance, its usually only appropriate in this context when the object has already been identified.
What are these things? They are books.
Where did you put the English books? They are on the top shelf.
You may often replace they with these/those when the sense of distance is appropriate:
What are these ...
My answer is in large part an expansion on Old Brixtonian’s comment.
As he says, the first sentence contains an error (perhaps merely typographical): “how is it what” should be “how is it that.” As written, it is nonsense. But your understanding is correct that the intended meaning is
If they had really …, why are there …
The second example is a mess.